Human Kinetics Excerpts

MAINTAIN A SOLID STRENGTH-TO-WEIGHT RATIO

This is an excerpt from Advanced Sports Nutrition (2nd Edition) by Dan Benardot.

Protein and Muscle Development

The strength-to-weight ratio is critically important in virtually all athletic endeavors, so athletes are rightly interested in ways to improve or sustain muscle mass. Athletes and their coaches commonly believe the central nutrition strategy for achieving this is to increase protein consumption. However, assuming caloric needs are met, the anabolic maximum for protein is reached at an intake level of approximately 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of mass. Clearly, if there is a relationship between protein consumption and muscle mass, it must be related to other factors including the type of exercise performed relative to the amount and type of protein consumed, the within-day distribution of protein consumed, and the coingestion of protein with other nutrients. There are, of course, also limitations in how well different populations may hope to enhance musculature, even when optimal nutrition strategies are coupled with appropriate resistance activities. Aging reduces the responses of muscle fibers and the anabolic signaling response to resistance exercise. Although few differences exist between the muscular responses of young women and young men to acute exercise, the muscular responses of older women may be blunted more than in older men.

The timed distribution of protein from food within a day has been assessed, with findings that clearly indicate improved muscle maintenance and enlargement when large peaks and valleys in protein consumption are avoided. Findings suggest that 90 grams of protein (enough to provide 1.5 grams per kilogram for a 60-kilogram, or 132-pound, person) was inadequate to sustain muscle mass when the protein intake (from foods) was postloaded so that most of the protein was consumed during the evening meal. However, when the same amount of protein was evenly redistributed to provide an equal amount (30 grams) of protein at each meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), the studied population was able to sustain and, in some cases, even increase muscle mass. The timing of nutrient ingestion also influences the anabolic response of muscle after exercise. Amino acid uptake is greater when free essential amino acids and carbohydrate are ingested before rather than after resistance exercise. However, consumption of whey protein (a whole-food protein) increased amino acid balance from negative to positive regardless of whether it was consumed before or after exercise.

There is a common misunderstanding that extra protein intake alone will support a larger muscle mass, and this theory is the main rationale for the large protein intakes seen in many athletes. In fact, additional total calories are required to support a larger muscle mass, and protein should constitute the same relative proportion of the extra calories consumed. For instance, if a 75-kilogram (165 pound) man wishes to increase his muscle mass by 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds), he would need to consume approximately 1.5 additional grams of protein for each kilogram of muscle mass desired. This amounts to only 4.5 grams of additional protein to support the larger muscle mass. By contrast, 30 grams per kilogram of additional carbohydrate, or 90 grams of additional carbohydrate in total, is required to support the larger muscle mass. Here is the total additional caloric requirement represented by the additional muscle:

  • 4.5 grams protein × 4 calories per gram = 18 kilocalories from protein
  • 90 grams carbohydrate × 4 calories per gram = 360 kilocalories from carbohydrate
  • Total additional calories = 378 calories per day above current requirements to support a 3-kilogram increase in muscle mass

Of course, this athlete would also need to stimulate muscle enlargement by undertaking the appropriate strength-building exercises. Otherwise, the extra calories would manifest themselves as stored fat rather than additional muscle. It is likely that the large amount of protein consumed by so many athletes represents the extra calories they require to maintain or enlarge the muscle mass. Although it is certainly possible to use protein as a primary energy source, it is not the most desirable source because of the nitrogenous wastes produced with protein oxidation. In addition, protein can be an expensive source of calories when provided in supplement form. For instance, eggs (an extremely high-quality source of protein) cost approximately 13 cents per 8 grams of protein, while protein capsules cost approximately $1.20 per 8 grams of protein and may be of questionable quality.

The coingestion of protein and carbohydrate has been assessed to determine if this enhances muscular protein update. One study found that trained men who ingested carbohydrate at the upper end of the recommended level to improve endurance performance (about 8 to 10 grams per kilogram) experienced no enhancement in skeletal muscle energy delivery with the addition of protein. On the other hand, when protein was ingested with carbohydrate during recovery from aerobic exercise, it had the effect of increasing muscle synthesis and improving whole-body net protein balance when compared with an equal caloric load of carbohydrate alone. It has also been demonstrated that an inadequate level of carbohydrate intake compromises skeletal muscle protein utilization and synthesis.

To summarize, building muscle involves more than simply increasing protein and amino acid intakes. It involves the following:

  • Addition of resistance activity to provide the physiological motivation (stimulation) to enlarge the muscle mass. It appears that low-load, high-volume resistance activity is superior to high-load, low-volume resistance activity in inducing acute muscle development.60
  • The maintenance of a sufficient total energy intake to fully satisfy the energy requirement, including the additional requirement of the added resistance activity. The goal is to allow consumed protein to be used for anabolic purposes rather than to be catabolized as a source of energy to help meet energy needs. In addition, it is possible to build muscle only if strategies are followed to reduce muscle breakdown. Sustaining a good energy balance throughout the day helps achieve this goal, enabling an improved potential for muscle building.
  • A protein intake of approximately 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body mass. With an adequate total energy intake, this level of protein appears to fully satisfy the anabolic requirements of new muscle synthesis.
  • A distribution of protein during the day that avoids large peaks and valleys in protein intake. Ideally, the protein consumed should be evenly distributed over multiple meals during the day.
  • The consumption of a high-quality protein source (such as whey protein) either before or after exercise. This strategy appears to enhance muscle protein synthesis.
  • The consumption of a carbohydrate and protein mixture immediately after exercise. This strategy also appears to enhance muscle protein synthesis. Athletes should avoid consuming only protein after exercise since this is a key opportunity to replenish depleted glycogen stores, and carbohydrate is needed for this purpose.

FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES IN SPORT BUSINESS ENVIRONMENTS

This is an excerpt from Applied Sport Management Skills by Robert N. Lussier and David C. Kimball.

Industries vary widely in their business makeup, competitive situation, and growth potential. There is need for different sport management strategies in different areas. To determine whether an industry is worth entering requires answers to such questions as "How large is the market? What is the growth rate? How many competitors are there?" Callaway Golf Company, for example, faces strong competition from Acushnet (Titleist brand), Adams Golf (Tight Lies Fairway Woods), TaylorMade, and Orlimar (TriMetal Fairway Woods).

Michael Porter uses the idea of five competitive forces to analyze the competitive environment.

1. Rivalry among competing firms: Porter calls this "the scrambling and jockeying for position." Businesses compete for customers by price, quality, and speed (responding to new styles and models and getting these products quickly to retailers). Nike, Adidas-Reebok, Puma, and Fila are rivals in the athletic footwear industry. All four of these companies need to anticipate the moves of their competitors. They also need to be aware of newer competitors such as Under Armour.

2. Potential development of substitute products and services: This occurs when companies from other industries try to move into the market. For example, Crocs are slip-on shoes that have become popular in water sports and as a fashion item. Crocs normally come in bright colors and are easily recognizable. Crocs recently formed an alliance with the NFL to sell Crocs shoes in professional team colors.

Clothing manufacturers such as Tommy Hilfiger have attempted to enter the sneaker market using their fashion brand to their advantage. Also, "brown shoe" companies, such as Doc Martens, persuaded many younger buyers to buy hiking-style sneakers instead of the traditional sport sneakers. The brown shoe companies were quite successful in stealing away sales in the mid- to late 1990s.

3. Potential entry of new competitors: How difficult and costly is it for new businesses to enter the industry? Does the company need to defend itself against new competition? Under Armour, founded in 1996, has successfully entered the high-performance apparel industry.

4. Bargaining power of suppliers: How dependent is the business on its suppliers? If the business has only one major supplier and no available alternatives, the supplier has great bargaining power. Conversely, a business can have bargaining power over the supplier. For example, Nike doesn’t manufacture its own sneakers; it uses private contractors in Vietnam to produce the sneakers. Workers are paid very low wages, which indirectly gives Nike a great deal of power over these oftentimes helpless factory workers. In effect, because Nike can easily switch factories, it controls the suppliers.

5. Bargaining power of consumers: Satisfied customers are the key to long-term success.23 How much does the business depend on the consumer? Consumers of footwear have power because they can shift to other manufacturers on a mere whim or because of a new style, better price, higher quality, greater convenience, and a host of other reasons. However, consumers lose power when they are loyal to a business like Nike and want to buy only Nike footwear. Because there are many consumers who want Nike products, Nike is in a strong position as long as it continues to offer appealing products.

Companies use analyses of the industry and their competitors primarily at the corporate level when they are deciding which lines of business they should consider entering (or exiting) and how to allocate resources among their product lines.

PROPER POSTURE IMPORTANT IN GOLF

This is an excerpt from Complete Conditioning for Golf by Pete Draovitch and Ralph Simpson.

Believe it or not, posture has a positive influence on power production. One look at Tiger on the tee should help convince you. He looks balanced and solid, with great spine angles, but, if his daily posture wasn’t good, he wouldn’t be able to put his body into that address position. Running fast without proper posture is impossible. Similarly, swinging a golf club without appropriate postural stability is unwise and less productive. Functional posture makes a world of difference in your swinging action and lets you impart far more force in your ball strike. For a simple demonstration, sit slumped in a chair with your head pushed forward and raise your arm. Then sit tall in your chair and repeat this arm test. Notice how much easier and farther your arm traveled? Sit slumped again and turn your head to the left, as you do during the backswing. Now turn your body to the right. Next, sit up tall, with your chin pulled in and your lower back slightly arched. Repeat these motions and then decide which posture produced a greater and more easily achieved range of motion. The spine is able to flex, extend (bend forward and backward), rotate, and bend to the side, but, when motion in one plane is used, there is less motion to be used in other planes. So if you’re slumped with a head-forward posture, your middle back is flexed and, subsequently, any rotation is decreased.

Body structure and posture are individual characteristics, but an improper golf swing can cause muscle imbalances just as muscle imbalances can cause an improper golf swing. These imbalances might not be obvious until they cause a disruptive physical problem via an escape route. Virtually every postural anomaly causes some sort of adaptation in movement; some are innocuous, but some lead to diminished power as well as potential injury. Here are some common physical limitations:

  • Reduced neck rotation can make it difficult to keep your eye on the ball during the swing.
  • Insufficient trunk strength interferes with your ability to transfer forces from the lower body to the upper body. In addition, proper spine angle will not be maintained during the swing.
  • Tight hamstrings do not allow an effective address position to be achieved.
  • Reduced range of hip motion leads to compromised swing patterns and lower-back pain.
  • Decreased trunk rotation limits shoulder turn, causes poor sequencing between the hips and trunk, alters the swing plane, and potentially causes back pain.
  • Insufficient shoulder strength, especially in the rotator cuff, leads to decreased club-head speed, as well as poor deceleration and poor club control.

Many players think of these problems as products of the sport, so they resort to anti-inflammatory medication and other quick-fix alternatives. These responses might temporarily reduce pain, but they rarely solve the underlying problem. Most postural conditions do not occur overnight. The biggest routine physical challenge faced by amateur golfers entering their 40s and 50s has to do with the posture they’ve developed over the past 20 years. The body slowly adapts to poor posture, and some body parts-such as the neck, shoulder, back, and hip-may be overused to compensate for loss of motion someplace else (see Escape Routes in chapter 2). By performing a few simple exercises regularly, however, you can improve and maintain good posture and thereby improve your swinging power. The testing in chapter 1, Golf Fitness Tests, will help you decide how to focus most of your efforts in regaining better posture.

The ability to maintain your functional trunk position for each shot is an acquired skill. Teaching pros commonly refer to this position as maintaining spine angle. When the spine is stable, it serves as an efficient and rigid lever to transfer energy from the lower body to the upper body and on to the golf club. By increasing the stability of the spine and the muscles that support it, you can improve your game.

Bending the spine places unnecessary stress on the lower-back muscles and joints. It also reduces your ability to transfer power from your lower body to your upper body, which translates into decreased club-head speed. For example, when your upper back is bent forward or hunched over, you place extra stress on your shoulders and neck as your shoulders round forward, thereby causing the rotator cuff muscles (a group of four small muscles that protect the shoulder joint) to work in an abnormal position. This undesirable posture can produce tendinitis, muscle strain, and joint sprain. It places the muscles at a mechanical disadvantage as the joint becomes an energy leak site, absorbing force instead of passing it along into the club and ball. Of course, this position also limits your swing action to a portion of the potential movement range.

Postural muscles (the muscles that maintain spine angle) are found throughout the body and function more for endurance than for strength or power. The main role of these muscles is to hold the skeletal system and joint structures in proper alignment so that the larger and stronger muscles can produce the desired body movements with appropriate forces in tandem with maintaining good balance.

DEVELOPED BACK MUSCLES PREVENT CYCLING INJURIES

This is an excerpt from Cycling Anatomy by Shannon Sovndal.

The importance of a strong and fit back cannot be overemphasized. The back and spine provide the foundation for almost every activity performed, and cycling is no exception. Unfortunately, back problems are a frequent complaint of cyclists. Because of the bent-over position on a bike, back muscles are constantly engaged. This stress can wreak havoc on the body if it isn’t conditioned and trained to withstand the ongoing effort. In addition to withstanding the strain of the cyclists’ position, the back must also provide a solid base that enables a cyclist to generate power during their pedal stroke. Back muscles stabilize the spine and pelvis, allowing the legs to generate maximal power.

The best strategy for a healthy back is to proactively condition the body to avoid any problems before they arise. Take time to build strength in the back-this will pay dividends in the long run.

Stability Ball Extension

Execution

 

  1. Lie with the lower abdomen draped over a stability ball.
  2. Keeping one foot on the floor, arch the back while raising and extending the arm and opposite leg. The elbow and knee should be straight (extended).
  3. Slowly lower the arm and leg. Curl the body around the stability ball.
  4. Repeat the exercise using your other arm and leg.

Cycling Focus

The erector spinae muscles must withstand enduring workloads when riding a bike. For the majority of rides, these muscles will maintain a forward leaning posture. If the back becomes sore or fatigued, the erector spinae muscles are usually the culprit. The stability ball extension is particularly effective because it provides full range of motion at maximal extension. This will counter the hours spent with the back arched forward on the bike. Added weights are not needed to make this workout effective. Remember that stretching and moving muscles through their complete range of motion will help get the most out of muscle fibers.

TEACHING HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS CONCEPTS

This is an excerpt from Fitness Education for Children: A Team Approach (2nd Edition) by Stephen Virgilio.

Now let’s discuss a plan for teaching health-related fitness concepts and active lifestyles within your physical education classes. To help get you started, I’ll give you models of practical learning activities for each developmental level. Then, in chapter 9 we’ll extend our discussion of teaching health-related fitness concepts with a discussion of ways to collaborate with your partner, the classroom teacher.

Begin with simple learning experiences that are associated with active fun and creativity found in developmental level I. Progress to level II, the level of concrete facts, with relevant examples and activities that apply to a concept. Finally, move your students to independence by giving them the opportunity to solve problems and make decisions, as characterized by developmental level III. Remember to teach health-related physical fitness concepts and active lifestyles throughout the school year, incorporating them into each unit of your curriculum.

Developmental Level I Fitness Concepts:

Physical Activity Is Fun

Fit Is Fun

Concept

Students express why they like the physical activity in physical education class.

Equipment

Large colored banner paper, digital camera, tape, markers, magazines, and one pair of scissors per student

Activities

Select one grade level for this project. Take individual pictures of each student moving. Attach the pictures to a large piece of colored banner paper for each class. Label the banner Fit Is Fun. Ask your students to cut out pictures from magazines of active people to add to the collage. Then have students write a word or draw a picture under their photos about physical activity. Finally, have students write what they enjoy most about physical education. (You may have to write what younger students dictate or have older buddies do so.)

This is a great activity to do just before an open house at the beginning of the school year. Place the banners for each grade you select around the gym or in the hallway.

Body Part Identification

Concepts

Students practice body part identification and develop body awareness.

Equipment

Chalk, outdoor playground surface, large roll of colored banner paper, markers

Activities

Before class, draw a large figure of a child about 15 feet (4.6 m) long on the outdoor playground surface with colored chalk. Divide the class in half, making one group the Hearts and the second group the Smarts. Call out specific directions, such as, “Hearts walk to the knee; Smarts skip to the ears. Hearts gallop to the elbow; Smarts hop to the ankle.” Remind students to stay in their own personal spaces.

Divide students into pairs. Give each pair a section of banner paper and a marker. Have each student trace the other lying on the paper. When they are finished, have them draw in the body parts they have learned. Then ask them to verbally identify various body parts.

Developmental Level II Fitness Concepts:

The Best I Can Be

Superstretch

Concepts

Students recognize that flexibility is the range of motion of a joint. Stretching prevents muscle and connective tissue injuries, improves the range of motion to fully benefit from the activity, and prevents muscle soreness that overextension can cause.

Equipment

l pound (0.5 kg) of uncooked spaghetti, 1 pound (0.5 kg) of cooked spaghetti, one tennis ball (kept warm), one tennis ball (from freezer)

Activities

Explain the need for warming up before physical activity. Say: “We need to raise the temperature of our muscles before stretching through a couple of minutes of large-muscle activity such as jogging or brisk walking. A warmed muscle is less likely to become injured because it takes more force and stretching to tear the muscle. Experts now believe that to improve flexibility, we may be better off stretching directly after an exercise or activity session because the muscles are warm and circulation is increased.” Give examples of typical activities such as Little League games, physical education class, housework, and gardening. Then, demonstrate the difference between warm and cold muscles. Hold up 1 pound (0.5 kg) of uncooked spaghetti, which represents a group of cold muscle fibers. Remark that the muscle fibers are cool, stiff, and brittle, limiting any movement. Now hold up 1 pound (0.5 kg) of cooked spaghetti. Show the class how warm and flexible muscles can move and bend more freely.

Demonstrate the same concept with two tennis balls. First, bounce the warm ball. Ask the class to notice how high it bounces. Next, bounce the frozen ball. Reinforce the difference in performance between the two tennis balls.

Have students practice a typical warm-up:

  • Walking in a large circle (30 seconds)
  • Walking with long strides (30 seconds)
  • Walking briskly (30 seconds)
  • Skipping (30 seconds)
  • Sidestepping (30 seconds)
  • Jogging slowly (30 seconds)

Muscle Mania

Concepts

Students practice muscle identification, learn the difference between muscle contraction and relaxation, and learn specific exercises for arm muscles.

Equipment

One long balloon, poster board for task card, markers, several exercise toners (rubberized resistance equipment)

Activities

Ask students to extend their arms with their palms facing the ceiling. Show the class where the biceps is located. Have students place the opposite hand across the muscle. Remark that the muscle appears flat. Now ask them to “make a muscle,” keeping the hand on the biceps muscle. As the muscle pops up, explain that the muscle is contracting.

Blow up the long balloon. Grab both ends and stretch it. Show the class that the balloon becomes elongated (stretched out) just like a muscle when it is relaxed. Then explain the concept that a muscle in a contracted state will shorten and become wider. Tell students that the balloon is now going to contract. Push gently from both ends to make the balloon come back slightly. Have students describe why the balloon becomes wider (Meeks and Heit 2010).

Design a fitness station with muscle fitness for the arms as its primary focus. Develop a task card with the picture of the entire arm illustrating the biceps. Color the biceps red and label it. Describe the arm curl movement using the exercise toner (see chapter 11) and illustrate it on the task card. Ask students to perform the arm curl three to five times with the resistance toner of their 
choice.

Developmental Level III Fitness Concepts:

Let’s Get Heart Smart

Wellness

Concepts

Students consider accepting friends for who they are, not what they look like, and recognize that games and sports are a good way to enjoy old friends and an opportunity to make new friends.

Equipment

One roll of yarn, one book with a plain cover, one book with a colorful cover and blank pages, one large parachute

Activities

Show the class two books, a plain book and a colorful, fancy book. Ask, “Which book do you like the best? Why?” (Most students will prefer the colorful book.) Now show them what is inside the fancy book: nothing but blank sheets of paper. Now explain to them that the plain book is an important work of a famous author. Explain: “Just because someone is a little heavy or wears glasses does not make them less of a person. That’s just the outside. What really counts is what’s on the inside.” Ask: “Have you heard the expressions ‘Beauty is only skin deep’ or ‘You can’t judge a book by its cover’? These old expressions hold true even today!”

Friendship Knots

Have students sit in a large circle. Take a roll of yarn, tie it around your index finger, and state a characteristic that you like in friends—for example, honesty. Now pass the yarn around the circle and have each student tie a knot around his or her index finger and state a positive characteristic he or she values. When everyone has had a chance, ask the class what the yarn has done. [It connects us.] Explain to the group that classes in school should work together as teams, help each other, and develop close friendships.

Parachute Jog

Have each student grasp the parachute with the inside hand. Explain that they will be going on a class jog up to the large tree and back. Say, “Some in class are faster runners, but in this activity, everyone has to stay together as a class.” Jog with the class the first time you introduce this activity, reinforcing working as a team and some of the positive characteristics mentioned earlier in the class.

Team Concept

Hold up a poster with the word TEAM written on it. On the back of the poster show the class what TEAM stands for: Together Everyone Achieves More. Ask students to describe the benefits of teamwork when they play a game or team sport. Ask them to name a popular professional team that plays well together and is a good example of good sporting behavior. Another example of teamwork is a family working together to help with routine chores and responsibilities around the house.

Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness Principles

Concepts

Students learn that the components of health-related physical fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition, and that they can develop each component by incorporating certain exercises into a balanced physical activity plan.

Equipment

Four boxes, each labeled as a fitness component (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition) and colorfully decorated; 20 index cards, each labeled with an activity or food (e.g., 1-5 push-ups, 1-5 curl-ups, jog in place, frozen yogurt, sit-and-reach)

Activities

Organize a learning station for a small group of students. Set up the four fitness component boxes. Offer task cards face down to students so that they can each select one. Have them turn their cards over, perform the activities on the cards, and then place them in the appropriate fitness component boxes. Have at least two cards for each member of the group so that students can repeat the process. When the students are finished, go over to the boxes and check the cards. If you find mistakes, don’t ask who placed them incorrectly. Simply reinforce the correct answers.

STRENGTH TRAINING OLDER ADULTS WITH OBESITY

This is an excerpt from Fitness Professional's Guide to Strength Training Older Adults by Tom Baechle and Wayne Westcott.

Over two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004), with many estimates even higher (ACSM 2010). People must be more than 20 percent heavier than the recommended bodyweight for their height to be considered obese, yet bodyweight based on height chart assessments alone does not identify how much extra fat a person is carrying. Another method that does not identify body fat but rather uses bodyweight relative to height (kg/m2) is the body mass index (BMI). The National Institutes of Health (2007) use BMI values between 25 and 29.9 and those greater than 30 for classifying people who are overweight and obese, respectively. When skinfold measurements, or the more precise method of underwater weighing, are used to determine body-fat percentage, values that exceed the normal range by at least 5 percent are considered obese. In older populations, ACSM (2010) has suggested that satisfactory body-fat values for men and women age 50 to 59 are between 10 and 22 percent and 20 and 32 percent, respectively. Average body-fat values reported by the Cooper Institute for men age 60 to 69 and 70 to 79 are 22.6 and 23.1 percent, respectively, and those for women are 27.9 and 28.6 percent, respectively (ACSM 2010). Although girth measurements may also be used with older adults, they may not be as helpful because there are no well-established values for persons over 56 years of age. Regardless of the method used for assessing body composition, the lifestyles of many Americans clearly contribute to their weighing too much.

It is also easy to understand why many senior men and women are debilitated by obesity—nonexercising adults lose over 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of muscle and add about 15 pounds (6.8 kg) of fat each decade, bringing about an increase in body fat that may be 50 percent greater than the increase in bodyweight (Evans and Rosenberg 1992). Thus, older clients may come to you with simply too much fat and too little muscle, which makes every one of their physical tasks more strenuous, almost as if they are driving a semitrailer truck with a motor scooter engine. Fortunately, sensible strength training can remediate this situation (Campbell et al. 1994; Westcott 2009).

Equipment Considerations

Because of the weight and size of their bodies, obese people have difficulty moving, including getting up, getting down, and engaging in all types of ambulatory activities. In choosing equipment, then, obese adults typically prefer upright or recumbent stationary cycles that support their weight instead of treadmills and stair-climbing machines that do not. Therefore, for your overweight clients, try to include machine exercises that can accommodate their larger frames and that are structurally sturdy enough to support their weight (plus that of the load or weight that they are using). Avoid exercises such as the machine hip/leg press because of the challenges it presents in getting into position to perform the exercise as well as simply getting into and out of the machine.

When working with obese clients, be sure that the equipment can accommodate their weight. Most manufacturers provide a weight limit in the product manual; if they do not, contact them to ascertain the weight limit for each piece of equipment that heavier clients will use. Free-weight exercises that require lifting dumbbells instead barbells from the floor to start an exercise may be easier. The width of the free-weight bar may also be too narrow to allow proper performance of exercises such as the biceps curl and back squat, indicating the need to use an Olympic-size bar, which is longer. Additional consideration should be given to selecting machine equipment that will be easy for overweight clients to get into and out of, and to avoiding some floor exercises (e.g., crunches, modified push-ups, stretching) that require clients to get down and up. If arthritis or joint pain is present, consider alternating the strength training exercises with lower-impact activities such as elliptical machines and stationary cycling activities or swimming. Regardless of the equipment used or the exercises being performed, programs for overweight and obese clients should include exercises that can be performed correctly and that clients feel more comfortable performing.

Calisthenic Limitations

Including calisthenic exercises such as sit-ups, push-ups, and pull-ups is an option, but excess bodyweight significantly limits the number of repetitions that overweight or obese clients can perform. Therefore, these activities may limit improvement and be embarrassing for them to attempt. Designing programs that include the use of machines or free-weight equipment may avoid this problem, because resistance loads can be easily adjusted to match each client’s strength level. For example, the free-weight bench press works the same muscles as push-ups do, and the weight-assisted chin and dip machine is nearly identical to pull-ups in its effect on the muscles worked. Although your client may not have the strength to complete push-ups or pull-ups, load assignments in the bench press and weight-assisted chin and dip machine, respectively, can be reduced enough to enable him or her to perform the 8 to 12 reps recommended in chapter 4.

Training Protocols

Given that many older adults suffer from obesity, you will likely have some of these clients coming to you for help in losing fat and increasing muscle mass and strength. Of course, strength training along with sensible eating can be instrumental in bringing about desired changes in overall body composition. Using the workouts in chapter 4, you can easily adjust training loads or resistances to match current strength levels while selecting exercises that can be performed safely on sturdy and properly sized machine and free-weight equipment.

Although strength training programs have been shown to reduce body weight significantly (and increase muscle mass), convincing overweight clients to eat properly is even more important in helping them lose fat. Consult a registered dietician and use the information in chapter 10 that discusses food selection and substitutions for heart-healthy eating to help your overweight clients attain a more desirable bodyweight. Also, encourage them to drink lots of water before, during, and after workouts, especially in hot and humid weather or in training areas without ideal air circulation. Suggest that they wear loose clothing to decrease chafing and dress in layers so that they can remove articles to avoid overheating (Flood and Constance 2002).

ANATOMY OF THE SHOULDER

This is an excerpt from Kinetic Anatomy (2nd Edition) by Robert Behnke.

Posterior Muscles of the Shoulder Joint

The following muscles are found on the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint.
Infraspinatus: The infraspinatus muscle (figure 3.33) gets its name from the anatomical structure where it originates: the infraspinous fossa beneath the inferior surface of the spine of the scapula. The infraspinatus muscle inserts on the middle facet of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. Contraction of the infraspinatus muscle produces external rotation and extension of the shoulder joint. The infraspinatus muscle is also part of the rotator cuff.
Hands on...
Place your partner’s shoulder joint in abduction, external rotation, and extension and then locate the infraspinatus muscle (figure 3.34).
Teres minor: The teres minor muscle is often considered together with the infraspinatus muscle because they share the same function. The teres minor (figure 3.33) originates on the upper and middle portions of the lateral border of the scapula and inserts on the distal facet of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. Contraction of the teres minor muscle, like the infraspinatus muscle, produces external rotation and extension of the shoulder joint. This muscle is also one of the shoulder joint muscles of the rotator cuff.
Hands on...
Place your partner’s shoulder joint in abduction, external rotation, and extension and then locate the teres minor muscle (figure 3.34).
Rotator Cuff
Four of the muscles of the shoulder joint insert on a musculotendinous structure running between the facets located on the lesser and greater tuberosities of the humerus. This structure is commonly referred to as the rotator cuff (figure 3.35). The motions produced at the shoulder joint by these four muscles (subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor) have been presented, but these four muscles are also responsible for maintaining the stability of the shoulder joint, which is particularly necessary because the socket of this ball-and-socket joint is so shallow and thus provides little stability. In an action such as throwing, not only do the muscles of the rotator cuff generate the force necessary to throw, but they also decelerate the force generated. In other words, the action of the rotator cuff muscles actually prevents the entire upper extremity from following the object thrown by keeping the humeral head in the glenoid fossa.
Focus on...The Rotator Cuff
Understanding the action of the rotator cuff makes it easier to understand why some individuals involved in repetitive throwing activities (e.g., pitchers, quarterbacks) develop problems of the rotator cuff. The muscles not only generate the force needed by contracting concentrically (shortening) but also apply a braking action through an eccentric (lengthening) contraction to prevent the upper extremity from leaving the body.

GROUP EXERCISE FOR NICHE MARKETS

This is an excerpt from Methods of Group Exercise Instruction Book & DVD (2nd Edition) by Carol Kennedy-Armbruster and Mary Yoke.

Let’s look at some other potential niche markets for group exercise. Many fitness professionals are targeting new mothers as exercise participants who could use camaraderie and support during their life transition into motherhood. Until 2000, classes for new moms were very hard to find, but today stroller-based exercise programs are on the rise (Asp 2006). Baby Boot Camp, StrollerFit, and Stroller Strides are only a few of the new group exercise classes that promote engaging in outdoor activity with your baby. These classes are held either indoors or outdoors in neighborhoods and provide a 60- to 75-minute workout combining all the health-related components of fitness. They average in size from 5 to 15 participants and are held in more than 150 locations in many different U.S. states. They are a wonderful way to get new mothers to interact with one another and enjoy a movement experience together. Most participants stay in the program until their kids are around 3 years old. These programs, which are franchises that can be started by any fitness professional, are listed in the resource guide at the end of this chapter (see page 301).

Another niche class that is popping up is a postpartum class in which the children are involved directly with the exercise experience. A recent article (Davies 2006) described a class named Baby Steps in which the mother and baby work out together. Some people call this type of class a mommy and me program (for more information, see the resource list on page 301). The format is usually strength based, with the new moms using their babies as weight rather than holding a dumbbell or a resistance tube. These types of classes are rich experiences in so many ways. The mothers avoid the guilt of leaving their child in order to go exercise. The families don’t have to pay for day care. The baby loves the interaction and attention. The mothers get a wonderful interactive experience with their child and also get a good workout. And this form of exercise is definitely functional training since the mothers become fit using the weight they carry around all day-their baby.

Another very creative example of a niche market program is a class that combines the enjoyment of music with physical movement. This class, which is based on basic conducting techniques, is called conductorcise. The inventor is a retired conductor, David Dworkin, who played clarinet for the American Symphony Orchestra. He suggests that conductorcise is a very good workout, especially for the upper body (Gerard 2006). He also feels that it improves the listening skills of participants and teaches them about the lives and works of great composers. Many musicians are sedentary due to the nature of their activity. Yet they love listening to and learning about music. Thus this mode of exercise can bring a whole new group of participants-musicians-to the exercise experience.

As exercise instructors, we know that there are clients out there we are missing, and so we need to be creative and think outside of the box when coming up with new movement experiences. Keller (2008) outlines several ideas that have brought energy to group exercise. There’s drop-in dodgeball, a game that is held in a basketball court and resembles the dodgeball game played by children. Or there’s stadium stompers, a class whose participants use the stairs of an outdoor football stadium to enhance their fitness. Finally, there is the breakfast club, a senior fitness class that combines all the components of fitness with an opportunity to eat breakfast and socialize at the facility’s café. All of these programs are client centered and involve not only a fitness component but also a meaningful life experience. This is what creating niche markets in group exercise is all about.

TEN TIPS FOR AVOIDING EXCESS WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY

This is an excerpt from Motherwell Maternity Fitness Plan by Bonnie Berk.

1. Eat a good breakfast. Skipping meals will contribute to eating in excess later in the day and may make you feel light-headed around midmorning. Also, after you sleep 6 to 8 hours a night without eating, your baby needs the calories early in the day. There is a theory that pregnant women should wake up at night to eat. I don’t believe this is necessary, but try to eat a nutritious breakfast.

2. Plan meals. Think about what you will eat for most meals in the morning so you can budget your nutrients. Take healthful snacks such as carrot sticks, fruit, and whole-grain crackers to work. Without planning, you open yourself to whatever entices you through the day.

3. Choose foods both low in fat and sugar and high in fiber. Canned fruits, for instance, are usually packed in syrup. Read labels for fat and sugar content, especially salad dressings. If you choose to eat something with a high sugar content, also try to eat something nutritious such as a glass of milk. This may help prevent a spike in blood sugar that often stimulates fat storage to occur. Also, it is very common to feel hungry 20 minutes after eating a sugary food because sugar stimulates production of insulin. Fiber tends to make you feel fuller and aids in excess fat removal.

4. Broil, bake, or steam your foods. Even when you go a restaurant, ask about how your food is prepared. Most restaurants will accommodate your dietary needs.

5. Go shopping for food on a full stomach. Make a shopping list to resist impulse buying.

6. Eat before you go to a party or social gathering. The fuller you are when you arrive, the less chance you will be tempted to eat something you do not want.

7. Smuggle fruit into the movies. I can assure you that anything you buy at the movie theater is probably high in fat, sugar, or both. Plan ahead and you will save money as well.

8. Drink at least 8 glasses of water a day. Dehydration often is misinterpreted as hunger. If you are eating all of your nutrients and are still hungry, you might need to drink more water.

9. Avoid people who want you to overeat! People love to encourage pregnant women to eat everything they themselves want but know they should not eat. It is human nature. Do not eat to please anyone. You can still be polite. Just say, thanks, but no thanks!

10. Eat mindfully and savor every bite! Studies show that when a person eats with other people, there is a tendency to eat almost 750 calories more than when eating alone. Researchers attribute this to eating without thinking about what you are eating. Try this eating meditation: Take a bite of food and chew 50 times before swallowing. Notice how the food tastes and then notice how full you feel from just one bite. The more slowly you eat, the less food you will tend to consume and you will enjoy your food more.

LEARN TO REFUEL AND RECOVER QUICKLY

This is an excerpt from Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook (4th Edition) by Nancy Clark.

Recovering From Extensive Exercise

When you’ve exercised hard and feel stiff, sore, and tired, you may wonder, If I were to eat better, would I recover faster? Without a doubt, consuming the appropriate foods and fluids can affect your recovery (as can doing light exercise for 10 to 20 minutes while you are cooling down to assist with removal of lactic acid from the blood and muscles). Many of my clients have questions about their recovery diets:

  • Football players want to know what they should eat after morning practice to prepare for the afternoon session.
  • People who lift weights wonder if they should eat extra protein after workouts to repair muscles.
  • Squash players seek foods that will prepare them for the next day’s match.
  • Swimmers search for the proper foods that will get them through a heavy season of training and competing without deterioration and chronic fatigue.

When you deal with the rigors of a tough training schedule, remember that what you eat after a hard workout or competition affects your recovery. For the serious athlete, foods eaten after exercise require the same careful selection as the meal before exercise. You should not separate your recovery diet from your daily diet. By wisely choosing your foods and fluids both right after you finish exercising and throughout the day, you will recover as best as you possibly can for the next workout.

If you are a recreational exerciser who works out three or four times per week, you need not worry about your recovery diet because you have enough time to refuel your muscle glycogen stores before your next workout. But you should be concerned about your recovery diet if you are a competitive athlete who does two or more workouts per day, such as a soccer player at training camp who practices morning and afternoon, a competitive swimmer who competes in multiple events per meet, a triathlete who trains twice per day, an aerobics instructor who teaches several classes daily, or a basketball player who needs to endure an entire season of intense training and competing. To recover and refuel for the next bout, you should pay particular attention to what you eat right after the first session.

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